All of the other changes were a part of the Perfected Spelling System, an officially mandated spelling reform in 1972. In this way, it is similar to many other languages of Asia, including Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Thai, Burmese, and Bengali. Indonesian names are uncommon as baby girl names. Javanese is a major language in Indonesia which is predominantly used in the island of Java among the Javanese people. It was originally based on the Dutch spelling and still bears some similarities to it. Indonesian follows the letter names of the Dutch alphabet. Following the bankruptcy of the VOC, the Batavian Republic took control of the colony in 1799, and it was only then that education in and promotion of Dutch began in the colony. Many Arabic words were brought and spread by merchants from Arab Peninsula like Arabian, Persian, and from the western part of India, Gujarat where many Muslims lived. Since the 7th century, the Old Malay language has been used in Nusantara (Indonesian archipelago), evidenced by Srivijaya inscriptions and by other inscriptions from coastal areas of the archipelago, such as those discovered in Java. Personal pronouns are not a separate part of speech, but a subset of nouns. Commonly the person's name, title, title with name, or occupation is used ("does Johnny want to go? Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia, [baˈha.sa in.doˈne.sja]) is the official language of Indonesia. The table below provides an overview of the most commonly and widely used pronouns in the Indonesian language: Notable among the personal-pronoun system is a distinction between two forms of "we": kita (you and me, you and us) and kami (us, but not you). It is believed that the Indonesian language was one of the means to achieve independence, but it is opened to receive vocabulary from other foreign languages aside from Malay that it has made contact with since the colonialism era, such as Dutch, English and Arabic among others, as the loan words keep increasing each year.. Standard Indonesian is a standard variety of "Riau Malay", which despite its common name is not based on the vernacular Malay dialects of the Riau Islands, but rather represents a form of Classical Malay as used in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Riau-Lingga Sultanate. The Indonesian name for the language (bahasa Indonesia) is also occasionally found in English and other languages.  As a result, many Indonesian words come from the Arabic language. In Indonesian, to change a singular into a plural one either repeats the word or adds para before it (the latter for living things only); for example, "students" can be either murid-murid or para murid. Even the name of the Bible in Indonesian translation is Alkitab (from Arabic: الكتاب al-kitāb = the book), which literally means "the Book". Malaysian Malay claims to be closer to the classical Malay of earlier centuries, even though modern Malaysian has been heavily influenced, in lexicon as well as in syntax, by English. Dutch thus remained the language of a small elite: in 1940, only 2% of the total population could speak Dutch. Twenty years of discussions about homeland, migrations and classifications", "Indonesian-Malay mutual intelligibility? and Hindi contributing during the flourishing of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms from the 2nd to the 14th century; followed by Arabic after the spread of Islam in the archipelago in the 13th century. For negating imperatives or advising against certain actions in Indonesian, the word jangan (do not) is used before the verb. As with "you", names and kin terms are extremely common.  Since its conception in 1928 and its official recognition in the 1945 Constitution, the Indonesian language has been loaded with a nationalist political agenda to unify Indonesia (former Dutch East Indies). A majority of Indonesian words that refer to people generally have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. The following are examples of noun affixes: The prefix per- drops its r before r, l and frequently before p, t, k. In some words it is peng-; though formally distinct, these are treated as variants of the same prefix in Indonesian grammar books. For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa (Arabic: عيسى), but is now spelt as Yesus. The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and to denote voice or intentional and accidental moods. From Sanskrit came such words as स्वर्ग surga (heaven), भाषा bahasa (language), काच kaca (glass, mirror), राज- raja (king), मनुष्य manusia (mankind), चिन्ता cinta (love), भूमि bumi (earth), भुवन buana (world), आगम agama (religion), स्त्री Istri (wife/woman), जय Jaya (victory/victorious), पुर Pura (city/temple/place) राक्षस Raksasa (giant/monster), धर्म Dharma (rule/regulations), मन्त्र Mantra (words/poet/spiritual prayers), क्षत्रिय Satria (warrior/brave/soldier), विजय Wijaya (greatly victorious/great victory), etc. Indonesian girl names have their origins typically in their culture and region. Use of the national language is abundant in the media, government bodies, schools, universities, workplaces, among members of the upper-class or nobility and also in formal situations, despite the 2010 census showing only 19.94% of over-five-year-olds speak mainly Indonesian at home. Alpha Omega Translations provides multilingual translation, interpretation, transcription, localization, editing, glossary development, desktop publishing and design, and writing for private and government entities. Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of Indonesia, an archipelago of 17,508 islands that is the world's largest Muslim-majority nation, with a total population of nearly 242 million. Indonesian was also influenced by the Melayu pasar (literally "market Malay"), which was the lingua franca of the archipelago in colonial times, and thus indirectly by other spoken languages of the islands. No dialect or regional language is too obscure, as everyone deserves to be able to communicate with the rest of the world. The Indonesian for what is your name is siapa nama Anda.  Despite still being a second language to most Indonesians, it is unquestionably the language of the Indonesian nation as a whole, as it has had unrivalled success as a factor in nation-building and the strengthening of Indonesian identity. Something interesting about Indonesian is that it doesn’t have words like “him” and “hers” or “girlfriend” and “boyfriend”, but does have words that distinguish people based on age. Quantity words come before the noun: seribu orang "a thousand people", beberapa pegunungan "a series of mountain ranges", beberapa kupu-kupu "some butterflies". Javanese has its own writing system, but is also written using Latin and Arabic scripts. In contrast, Javanese and Sundanese were the mother tongues of 42–48% and 15% respectively. In some regions of Indonesia such as Sumatra and Jakarta, abang (a gender-specific term meaning "older brother") is commonly used as a form of address for older siblings/males, while kakak (a non-gender specific term meaning "older sibling") is often used to mean "older sister". Javanese is also recognized as the official language in East Java as well as in Central Java. Dutch dominance at that time covered nearly all aspects, with official forums requiring the use of Dutch, although since the Second Youth Congress (1928) the use of Indonesian as the national language was agreed on as one of the tools in the independence struggle. The compounds makcik and pakcik are used with village elders one is well acquainted with or the guest of. Indonesian (in its normative form) has essentially the same material basis as the standard Malaysian register of Malay and is therefore considered to be a variety of the pluricentric Malay language. Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely different normative varieties of the same language, while Indonesians tend to treat them as separate, albeit closely related, languages. For example, Ani membeli satu kilo mangga (Ani buys one kilogram of mangoes). , Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in at least one of the more than 700 indigenous local languages; examples include Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese, which are commonly used at home and within the local community. Plurals are rarely used in Indonesian, especially in informal parlance. Over that long period, Malay, which would later become standardised as Indonesian, was the primary language of commerce and travel. Diphthongs are differentiated from two vowels in two syllables, such as: The consonants of Indonesian are shown above. It has a degree of mutual intelligibility with the Malaysian standard of Malay, which is officially known there as Bahasa Malaysia, despite the numerous lexical differences. Roach, P. (1982). This is unfortunate, as it is a country rich in history and culture that has a lot to share with the world. This table lists all of: ISO 639-1: two-letter codes, one per language for ISO 639 macrolanguage; And some of: Similarly, more direct influences from other languages, such as Javanese and Chinese, have also seen further use of other gendered words in Indonesian. , Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia, and its usage is encouraged throughout the Indonesian archipelago.  It is understood by the Malay people of Australia's Cocos Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean, also in some parts of the Sulu area of the southern Philippines and traces of it are to be found among people of Malay descent in Sri Lanka, South Africa, Suriname, and other places. The adoption of Indonesian as the country's national language was in contrast to most other post-colonial states. On this basis, there are no phonological diphthongs in Indonesian.. As of it, Mohammad Hoesni Thamrin inveighed actions underestimating Indonesian. So, as it is logically, one does not change the singular into the plural form, because it is not necessary and considered a pleonasm (in Indonesian often called pemborosan kata). Using se- plus a measure word is closer to English "one" or "a certain": Indonesian is written with the Latin script. Find more Indonesian words at wordhippo.com! Reduplication is often mentioned as the formal way to express the plural form of nouns in Indonesian; however, in informal daily discourse, speakers of Indonesian usually use other methods to indicate the concept of something being "more than one". Here are the top three languages of Indonesia: An interesting thing to point out about Indonesian, before we go into more detail, is that it is actually a variety of the Malay language that became standardized and is now the official language of the country. There are four types of affixes: prefixes (awalan), suffixes (akhiran), circumfixes (apitan) and infixes (sisipan). In 2010, Indonesian had 42.8 million native speakers and 154.9 million second-language speakers, who speak it alongside their local mother tongue, giving a total number of speakers in Indonesia of 197.7 million. Some of these affixes are ignored in colloquial speech. It also serves as a vehicle of communication among the provinces and different regional cultures in the country. Many words that originally are adopted through the Dutch language today however often are mistaken as English due to the similarity in the Germanic nature of both languages. Saya is the more formal form, whereas aku is used with family, friends, and between lovers. This is due to the Germanic traces that exist in the two languages. Here, we will discuss about new vocabulary, clock in Bahasa Indonesia… Distributive affixes derive mass nouns that are effectively plural: pohon "tree", pepohonan "flora, trees"; rumah "house", perumahan "housing, houses"; gunung "mountain", pegunungan "mountain range, mountains". LANGUAGES.  Also, in Chapter III, Section 25 to 45, Government regulation No.  Nevertheless, acoustic measurements suggest that Indonesian has more syllable-based rhythm than British English, even though doubts remain about whether the syllable is the appropriate unit for the study of Malay prosody.. Most of the speakers live in western Java, but there are Sundanese speakers found on other Indonesian islands as well. "passive voice", with OVA word order in the third person, and OAV in the first or second persons), meng- (agent focus, traditionally called Some of the old spellings (which were derived from Dutch orthography) do survive in proper names; for example, the name of a former president of Indonesia is still sometimes written Soeharto, and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written Jogjakarta. Using the "ter-" prefix, implies a state of being. It is a standardised variety of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Loanwords from Portuguese were mainly connected with articles that the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. By borrowing heavily from numerous other languages, it expresses a natural linguistic evolution; in fact, it is as natural as the next language, as demonstrated in its exceptional capacity for absorbing foreign vocabulary.. ISO 639 is a standardized nomenclature used to classify languages.  In Australia, Indonesian is one of three Asian target languages, together with Japanese and Mandarin, taught in some schools as part of the Languages Other Than English programme. Adjectives, demonstrative determiners, and possessive determiners follow the noun they modify. In fact, they consciously prevented the language from being spread by refusing to provide education, especially in Dutch, to the native Indonesians so they would not come to see themselves as equals. Similarly, verb affixes in Indonesian are attached to root words to form verbs. There is no difference between singular and plural.  The term Bahasa Indonesia itself had been proposed by Mohammad Tabrani in 1926, and Tabrani had further proposed the term over calling the language Malay language during the First Youth Congress in 1926. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world—of which the majority speak Indonesian, which makes it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Because Sanskrit has long been known in the Indonesian archipelago, Sanskrit loanwords, unlike those from other languages, have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian to such an extent that, for many, they are no longer perceived to be foreign. The langue gained pro… Some linguists have argued that it was the more common Low Malay that formed the base of the Indonesian language.. Due to increasing demand among students, the Embassy will open an intermediate Indonesian language course later in the year. Forms in ter- and ke-...-an are often equivalent to adjectives in English. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew Word. The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. 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